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I recently added file upload support to an Ember application that talks to a Phoenix API server using the JSONAPI protocol. I wanted a solution that integrated well with Ember and ember-data, supported direct uploads to S3 from the client, included drag and drop support for choosing files, and had the ability to show upload progress. After experimenting with a number of options I decided to use the ember-file-upload plugin.

In this post I’ll show how to build the Phoenix API server call used by ember-file-upload to fetch pre-signed S3 upload credentials. We’ll use a Hex package I wrote called s3_direct_upload to help with this task.

Adding file uploads to your Ember app

Following along with the recipe in the ember-file-upload README for S3 direct uploads, we add the library to package.json and npm install it, then we create a bucket and set its CORS configuration as described.

In our template we use the file-dropzone and file-upload components provided by ember-file-upload:

{{#file-dropzone name="file-upload" as |dropzone queue|}}
  {{#if dropzone.active}}
    {{#if dropzone.valid}}
      Upload files.
    {{else}}
      Invalid type.
    {{/if}}
  {{else if queue.files.length}}
    Uploading {{queue.files.length}} files. ({{queue.progress}}%)
  {{else}}
    {{#if dropzone.supported}}
      Drop files.
    {{/if}}
    {{#file-upload name="file-upload"
       multiple=true
       onfileadd=(action "uploadFile")}}
    {{/file-upload}}
  {{/if}}
{{/file-dropzone}}

Then we add an uploadFile action that performs three tasks.

  1. It fetches pre-signed direct upload credentials from the API server.
  2. It performs the file upload to S3 using those credentials.
  3. It returns the S3 response including a Location header containing the S3 url for the uploaded file.

When fetching the pre-signed credentials we need to set the request type to JSONAPI and provide an authorization token with the help of our session service. The file name and MIME type are sent along as parameters, but you can add any additional parameters your API needs.

For example: if you wanted the uploaded file to be placed in the S3 bucket using a parent scoped path like parent/:parent_id/uploads/:filename you could add parent_id as a parameter and use it in your Phoenix controller action to build the path.

actions: {
  uploadFile: function (file) {
    let auth = this.get('session.data.authenticated');
    let ajaxRequest = {
      url: '/api/v1/file_upload_presigned',
      type: 'GET',
      headers: {
        'Authorization': `Token token="${auth.token}", email="${auth.email}"`,
        'Accept': 'application/vnd.api+json',
        'Content-Type': 'application/vnd.api+json'
      },
      data: {filename: file.get("name"), mimetype: file.get("type")}
    };
    RSVP.cast(Ember.$.ajax(ajaxRequest)).then(function (response) {
      return file.upload(response.url, {
        data: response.credentials
      });
    }).then(function (response) {
      // handle the S3 upload response
      // this could be as simple as updating or creating an ember model
      // response.headers.Location contains the uploaded file's S3 URL
    });
  }
}

Generating pre-signed upload credentials in Phoenix

Now we just need to add the /api/v1/file_upload_presigned route to our Phoenix API server. We’ll use the s3_direct_upload library to help with this. To pull in this library, just add {:s3_direct_upload, "~> 0.1.1"} to your application dependencies in mix.exs and run mix deps.get.

In order to use the s3_direct_upload module we need to configure the AWS access and secret keys as well as the S3 bucket name. We’ll use environment variables to supply this configuration, so in config/config.exs add something like this:

config :s3_direct_upload,
  aws_access_key: System.get_env("AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID"),
  aws_secret_key: System.get_env("AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY"),
  aws_s3_bucket: System.get_env("AWS_S3_BUCKET")

Next we need to add a route for the pre-signed credentials in web/router.ex. The api pipeline sets up JSONAPI content type handling and JSONAPI deserialization. Our app uses the ja_serializer library to help with this. The pipeline also authenticates the request using the token in the Authorization header.

scope "/api/v1", Api do
  pipe_through :api

  get "/file_upload_presigned", FileUploadController, :presigned
end

Finally we add the Phoenix controller and action. In this example we generate a path consisting of a simple UUID, but you can build whatever makes sense for your application. With this implementation, the uploaded file URLs will look like:

https://bucket.s3.amazonaws.com/7e087127-4891-4735-b1e5-e56faa2f0cf2/file.ext

defmodule Api.FileUploadController do
  use Api.Web, :controller

  def presigned(conn, %{"filename" => file_name, "mimetype" => mimetype}) do
    uuid = Ecto.UUID.generate()
    path = "#{uuid}"
    upload = %S3DirectUpload{file_name: file_name, mimetype: mimetype, path: path}
    send_resp(conn, 200, S3DirectUpload.presigned_json(upload))
  end
end

Simple file uploads in Ember and Phoenix

Using the ember-file-upload and s3_direct_upload libraries makes it simple to add S3 direct uploads to your Ember application and Phoenix API server. Not only is it easy but the resulting file upload interface supports drag and drop, handling of single or multiple file uploads, filtering by MIME type and file extension, and upload progress feedback. I’m really happy with the result.

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